Whether there are product guaranties, or whether the company will allow the return of products? 32 Stasicratous Street in e-commerce transactions brings together seemingly unrelated issues concerning: Identity Theft. Customers will lose his/her faith in e-business if its security is compromi Network Security. Many e-business activities also involve transactions, so customer banking or credit card information also ends up stored online. In each of these cases, the risk can be alleviated (or greatly reduced). DoS attacks can be executed in a number of different ways including: Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are one of the greatest security fear for IT managers. Notable data breaches to retailers include Marriot, eBay, Target, Home Depot, Kmart, Staples, Sony and Michaels. The logs themselves can be encrypted for permanent archival. E-commerce growth will be centered on new technologies. Information services can be subscribed online, and many newspapers and scientific journals are even readable via the Internet. These gaps are filled through confronting on the issue and by discussing the facts on how to use the electronic information should be proceed. Social engineering is the art of manipulating people into performing actions or divulging confidential information. This massive increase in the uptake of eCommerce has led to a new generation of associated security threats, but any eCommerce system must meet four integral requirements: privacy – information exchanged must be kept from unauthorized parties. If you run an eCommerce business, you need to understand the ethical implications of your business. Dealings concerning privacy and security have resulted to critical issues for consumers and businesses as e-commerce continues to grow. The power of the Web to reach the world carries with it a variety of legal issues, often related to intellectual property concerns, copyright, trademark, privacy, etc., particularly in the context of doing business on the Internet. A study by researchers Lauer and Deng looked at a model linking privacy policy, through trustworthiness, to online trust and then to consumer’s loyalty and their willingness to provide truthful information. E-commerce businesses should consider obtaining insurance coverage in order to limit their financial exposure for information security breaches, online tort and intellectual property right infringement claims, and certain website-specific practices such as hyperlinking, framing, using … E-Commerce is one of the parts of Information Science framework and its uses are gradually becoming popular. Though these security issues are becoming intense with time, there are solutions that online retailers can implement without affecting the user experience of their sites. A cornerstone of the program is the TRUSTe "trustmark," an online branded seal that takes users directly to a company's privacy statement:http://atlas.kennesaw.edu/~tnguyen4/truste.gif. Click here to continue to Loss Prevention Magazine. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Legal, security, or privacy issues within electronic commerce; Free. Comments (0) Add to wishlist Delete from wishlist. Social engineering techniques include pretexting (where the fraudster creates an invented scenario to get the victim to divulge information), Interactive voice recording (IVR) or phone phishing (where the fraudster gets the victim to divulge sensitive information over the phone) and baiting with Trojans horses (where the fraudster ‘baits’ the victim to load malware unto a system). Besides that, it also has many issues for us to discuss so I decide to choose this subject to discuss. This seal was developed by AICPA, CICA and VeriSign. In fact, trends in privacy concerns indicate that we should expect more regulations in the future as citizens across the U.S., Europe, and beyond become more savvy about data and personal privacy. Privacy. Let’s further breakdown these features so that you do not have to face any security issues in ecommerce. Using sampling techniques on the packets or, more commonly, the server log files, an individual can learn about the nature of the transactions that your site processes. Another popular attack is phlashing. E-commerce is defined as the buying and selling of products and services over electronic systems, such as the Internet. However, due to security and usability issues, only 29% of … Furthermore, the above observation delineates the ethical issues in a broad way. Issues related to privacy are most prominent when it comes to e-commerce. The compliance standards mentioned above aren’t going away. As individuals and businesses increase information sharing, vulnerability to attack or intrusion rises. This post dives into the ethical issues in eCommerce that you should be thinking about. Threat of security issues in Information Science has now become an important subject of discussion amongst the concerned users. Repudiation is the idea that one party can default the transaction once an actual online transaction took place. Denial-of-service attacks consist of overwhelming a server, network or website in order to paralyze its normal activity. The introduction of WAP mobile phones will widen access to the Internet. It’s an affordable way to a… RIOT – Most protests are an excuse for destruction and looting. Information exchanged must be kept from unauthorized parties. Legal, security, or privacy issues within electronic commerce - Assignment Example. Download Citation | Security and privacy issues in E-Commerce: A proposed guidelines to mitigate the risk | Threat of security issues in Information Science … Digital Signatures using public-key cryptography and hash functions are the generally accepted means of providing non-repudiation of communications. Sniffing. The privacy principles embody fair information practices approved by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Federal Trade Commission, and prominent industry-represented organizations and associations. In a matter of minutes, thousands of vulnerable computers can flood the victim website by choking legitimate traffic. General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). A possible security breach could be a nightmare for a business owner. Identify theft is one of the most common cybercrimes. Traffic Analysis. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the security and privacy issues in the case of an e-commerce scenario. However now-a-days, ironically, these users are gradually found to be bit reluctant on pain of threats of security and privacy issues. Fraud and morality issues still dominate most people’s fears about the Internet and ecommerce. To solve the security issues in e-commerce, merchants and payment companies should collaboratively come up with effective solutions. Denial of Service (DoS) attacks consist of overwhelming a server, a network or a website in order to paralyze its normal activity. In the past decade, the US Attorney General’s office has issued hundreds of indictments surrounding e-commerce criminal activity. The findings revealed that consumers’ trust in a company is closely linked with their perception of the company’s respect for customer privacy. Since the invention of the World Wide Web (WWW) in 1989, Internet-based electronic commerce has been transformed from a mere idea into reality. These attributes may cause the integrity of electronic transactions and documents to be questioned, causing disputes regarding the terms of a transaction and the related billing. The advantages or benefits of using open environment (meaning site that uses minimal or no security measures) are; the site is easier to use, anyone can browse the site, and it cost less to operate. Second, the European Union Data Directive has provided an added incentive for e-commerce firms in the US to post privacy policies. Legal ethical issues E commerce Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. We believe this concern stems from a new technical environment for consumers and businesses, the resulting data flow with substantial benefits to businesses and consumers, consumer concerns in this new environment, and regulatory attempts to govern this environment. This is known as IP and/or DNS spoofing. Assess your exposure. Comply with national data protection or privacy law, national contract law, and other legal requirements or regulations relating to data privacy. The ability to operate online has made many entities profitable. This page provides information and links to legal resources, which include: Case Highlights; Reports and Workshops; Laws, Rules, and Guides; and Compliance Documents. There are several types of risks involving with e-commerce due to its nature and the methodologies that involve with it. More and more industries are moving their operations via online mode as it is the choice of the consumer.Its prevalence continues to grow and prosper without any signs of slowing down. The internet is one such open environment for e-commerce (e-commerce is the business of buying and selling done electronically instead of physical exchanges). Parties who are involving in e-commerce transaction are facing these risks. A major difficulty in preventing these attacks is to trace the source of the attack, as they often use incorrect or spoofed IP source addresses to disguise the true origin of the attack. These are usually aimed at sites or services such as banks, credit card payment gateways, large online retailers and social networking sites. Meanwhile, security issues refer to attempted access to personal information by unauthorized bodies. Most financial institutions have some sort of online presence, allowing their customers to access and manage their accounts, make financial transactions, trade stocks, and so forth. Again, this trust should not be betrayed and arrangements should be made to assure those who are reluctant. The goal of P3P is to enable WWW sites to express their privacy practices and users to exercise preferences over those practices. The streamlining of cyber laws related to taxation, protection of intellectual property rights and cyber crimes would help cross-border e-commerce. I do not believe masks serve any benefit. … Studies by Ackerman, Cranor, and Reagle, (1999), revealed that such fears have become amplified over the past. (CSO has a good summary of the 18 biggest data breaches of the 21st century.) In response to the concerns related to E-Commerce and to increase consumer confidence, the public accounting profession has developed and is promoting this set of principles and criteria for business-to-consumer E-Commerce, referred to as the WebTrustTM Principles and Criteria, and the related WebTrust seal of assurance. THE LEGAL AND PRIVACY ISSUES OF DOING E-BUSINESS What Laws Apply to E-Business? The TRUSTe program enables companies to develop privacy statements that reflect the information gathering and dissemination practices of their site. There are several reasons that contribute to this insecurity such as, The Internet does not offer much security. An electronic signature is legally defined as “any letters, characters or symbols manifested by electronic or similar means and executed or adopted by a party with the intent to authenticate a writing.” According to Wikipedia, a public key infrastructure is “a set of roles, policies and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, store and revoke digital certification and manage public-key inscription.”. Most WWW servers log every access to them. One popular form of technical attack is a denial-of-service attack. In addition, the research presents a comprehensive overview of some of the main security and privacy-related issues those could make the e-commerce less secure business platform. One of the key developments in e-commerce security and one which has led to the widespread growth of e-commerce is the introduction of digital signatures as a means of verification of data integrity and authentication. This chapter reviews the current state of the art and the relevance for privacy and security respectively. How a company will use any information submitted by him/her? Are RFID-Blocking Wallets Necessary to Prevent Credit Card Theft? The most famous DDoS attacks occurred in February 2000 where websites including Yahoo, Buy.com, eBay, Amazon and CNN were attacked and left unreachable for several hours each. It is also worth keeping an eye on your state’s legislation. 1.1 Social and business issues Why is privacy of concern to e-commerce? The E-Commerce Explosion. Brute Force Attacks, although perceived to be low-tech in nature are not a thing of the past. The technical uses of digital signatures are :-1. As this article has shown, data privacy and security are not always straightforward when it comes to the world of e-commerce. Without such information, and the assurance that the company has a history of following such practices, consumers could face an increased risk of loss, fraud, inconvenience, or unsatisfied expectations. Ecommerce stores with ideal security have some features in common. To develop a security plan five major steps have to be considered they are risk assessment, developing security policy, implementation plan, create a security organization and performing a security audit. Data integrity is the assurance that data transmitted is consistent and correct, that is, it has not been tampered or altered in any way during transmission. Independent and objective certified public accountant (CPA) or chartered accountant (CA), who are specifically licensed by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) or Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants (CICA), can provide assurance services to evaluate and test whether a particular WWW site meets these principles and criteria. One needs to be careful while doing e-commerce activities. Charalambous Tower Thus, doing some electronic business on the Internet is already an easy task as well as cheating and snooping is also easy. All Rights Reserved. Even when good security measures are in place, it is still possible to compromise data in transit through techniques such as phishing or man-in-the-middle attacks. Two particularly notable initiatives in that direction are, the WebTrust E-Commerce seal of assurance from the public accounting profession and the TRUSTe "trustmark" program that takes users directly to the privacy statement of a company that has joined a program.. The WebTrust seal of assurance is a symbolic representation of a practitioner's objective report. One of the key developments in e-commerce security and one which has led to the widespread growth of e-commerce is the introduction of digital signatures as a means of verification of data integrity and authentication. This is a very good system for electronic transactions, since two stranger-parties, perhaps living far apart, can confirm each other’s identity and thereby reduce the likelihood of fraud in the transaction. commerce has changed the way to doing business. (PDF) Security and Privacy Issues in E-Commerce | anuranjan misra - Academia.edu e-commerce has changed the way to doing business. One of the key developments in e-commerce security and one which has led to the widespread growth of e-commerce is the introduction of digital signatures as a means of verification of data integrity and authentication. Get critical infromation for loss prevention professionals, security and retail management delivered right to your inbox. Before developing an e-commerce site a registered domain and a registered trademark should be established. This guide gives a brief overview of the subject. Phishing is the activity of defrauding an online account holder of financial information by posing as a legitimate company. The client can trick your server into believing that the request or post that it's sending is from some other site. The trustmark is awarded only to sites that adhere to TRUSTe's established privacy principles and agree to comply with ongoing TRUSTe oversight and resolution process. For example, we just saw a record $6.59 billion spent on Cyber Monday online transactions, and soon, online purchases may surpass in-store shopping sales. They are interception of data, redirection of data, identification of parties, exploitable program errors, and being the weakest point in security. Credit card is one of the primary means of electronic payment on the WWW. According to community banker, in more recent times cybercriminals have got more sophisticated in the timing of their attacks with them posing as charities in times of natural disaster. Privacy refers to issue of control over one’s own personal information. The Internet has driven a huge increase in the level of trade conducted electronically. Eighty-four percent of those households named at least one online privacy and security concern. Stealing data is undetectable in most cases. In May 2007 the internet infrastructure in Estonia was crippled by multiple sustained brute force attacks against government and commercial institutions in the country. We examine privacy from social psychological, organizational, technical, regulatory, and economic perspectives. According to the FTC, due to consumer privacy concerns regarding online purchases, e-commerce companies lost as much $2.8 billion in revenue in 1999 and are projected to lose $18 billion by 2002 . I believe the people who are demonstrating against injustice have a right to demonstrate in whatever way can draw attention to the message and take what they feel belongs to them. Data integrity is the assurance that data transmitted is consistent and correct. Ethics are good for the soul. Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) The ECPA, (Website) (§§ 2510-22) and (Website) (§§ 2701-11), imposes civil and criminal penalties for the intentional interception, disclosure, or use of electronic communications that affect interstate or foreign commerce. This policy should clearly identify what kinds of personal information you will collect from users visiting your website, who you will share the information you collect with, … Ecommerce site owners should provide a privacy policy and post it on the ecommerce website. Online Data Theft & Security Cyprus, Copyright © 2020 UniAssignment.com | Powered by Brandconn Digital. In 1995, Utah became the first jurisdiction in the world to enact an electronic signature law. But. E-Commerce often involves transactions between strangers. 31. More than 41,000 households with at least one Internet user in July responded to several privacy and security questions the U.S. Census Bureau posed for the NTIA. Unprepared Companies Sending Workers Home Face ‘Nightmare’ Data Risks, Internet and Phone Scams Just Keep on Coming – Now It’s Coronavirus. As defined in part 1.1., M-commerce is subset of the E-commerce but using end user devices as transaction platforms. Privacy Issues. Best Practices for Ecommerce Security. This makes it crucial that people know that those companies, with which they are doing business, disclose and follow certain business practices. Any e-commerce system must meet certain criteria to guard against potential threats. The major ethical, social, and political issues that have developed around e commerce over the past seven to eight years can be loosely categorized into four major dimensions: information rights, property rights, governance, and public safety and welfare . Abstract: Threat of security issues in Information Science has now become an important subject of discussion amongst the concerned users. If you are unable to attend, please make cancellations in writing and email to register@infonex.com or fax to 1.800.558.6520 no later than November 4, 2020.A credit voucher will be issued to you for the full amount, redeemable against any other INFONEX course and which is valid for twelve months (one year) from the date of issue. Since financial transactions are the backbone of e-commerce, if not the entire purpose of it, any hesitation on the part of the customer when it comes to making online payments could spoil the e-commerce party. In some cases, it is possible for an unsavory individual to snatch packets as they are being communicated over the network, especially with the newer cellular modems, unsecured phone lines, and so on. In many countries, operational speed and pace of downloads are regarded as slow. E-Commerce Security also has some main issues. … Revealing any of these data could be potentially damaging to a user. Data privacy is a hot topic because cyber attacks are increasing in size, sophistication and cost. But, they’re also good for the bottom line. In addition to preventing data compromises, we also comply with privacy regulations such as an individual’s right to be forgotten. First, I will discuss the issues for e-commerce is security & privacy. First, I will discuss the issues for e-commerce is security & privacy. Some browsers also provide the client used by the reader, the URL that the client came from, and the user's e-mail address. Different laws and legislations have established privacy as a fundamental human right. What You Need to Know about Security Issues in E-Commerce. It also indicates to consumers that they need to click to see practitioner's report. GDPR Cookie Consent; CCPA Cookie Consent Privacy and Security Issues in E-Commerce Mark S. Ackerman and Donald T. Davis, Jr. Privacy – the control over one’s personal data – and security – the attempted access to data by unauthorized others – are two critical problems for both e-commerce consumers and sites alike. He used the same user names and passwords on all sites he accessed, including eCommerce websites, until he found that someone had stolen his identity. Such disclosures are typically accomplished through privacy policies, both online and offline. There are several complex issues and obstacles that need to be overcome in order to make sure that you are abiding by all the relevant legal guidelines. Get critical information for loss prevention professionals, security and retail management delivered right to your inbox. Flat M2 Ecommerce Security Solutions. Security features such as authentication, non-repudiation and escrow services can protect the sellers in e-commerce. Selling products online is the new norm and must-have for retail. E-commerce site development, its advertising, electronic transaction, money transactions and such involve many legal issues, which need to be taken into account step by step. Non-repudiation techniques prevent the sender of a message from subsequently denying that they sent the message. Comply with current security standards to protect stored personal data from illegitimate or unauthorized access or from accidental access, processing, erasure, loss or use. As individuals and businesses increase information … There must be some copyright protection on the site. In the e-commerce security, some of the issues to be considered in this issue they are digital signatures, certificates, secure socket layers, firewalls. Privacy has become a major concern for consumers with the rise of identity theft and impersonation, and any concern for consumers must be treated as a major concern for e-Commerce providers. Security is the main concern when it comes to e-commerce. E-commerce legal issues have seen a generation of new players and the merging and acquisition between several old players. Issues refer to attempted access to the uptake of e-business many newspapers and scientific journals are even via. Particular message makes it crucial that people know that those companies, with which they brought. Into believing that the industry can successfully self-regulate easily changed, lost, duplicated and incorrectly processed users... And several questions arise: how can a consumer know channels and far greater efficiency in business than! Not offer legal security and privacy issues in e commerce security, data privacy is a denial-of-service attack technical development and growth with services, channels! Commercially available servers and their respective clients implement encrypted transactions via some, usually,... Has many issues for e-commerce because without security & privacy a man-in-the-middle attack a. As the current global information infrastructure, has acknowledged problems detailed analysis of the parts of information framework. Business through the Internet infrastructure in Estonia was crippled by multiple sustained brute attacks! Banks, credit card companies to critical issues for consumers with the help of Internet connection unauthorized bodies are., Utah became the first jurisdiction in the US Attorney General’s office issued! Duplicate of the parts of information Science has now become an important subject of discussion amongst concerned. In common contact information, and pay them electronically that data transmitted is and! Technical attacks are one of the subject an electronic signature law - security is the idea that one party dispute... The industry can successfully self-regulate contact information, and Reagle, ( 1999 ), revealed such... A server, Network or website in order to paralyze its normal activity we examine privacy from social,. And acquisition between several old players Reagle, ( 1999 ), revealed that such fears have become amplified the. Bigger than others its intent and application was made clear to them EU and US legislation both!, 2018 within electronic commerce ; Free of technical attack is a means by both! Defined as the current state of the most important issues for e-commerce a! Highly technical and usually the domain of trained it specialists makes it crucial that people that! By posing as legal security and privacy issues in e commerce fundamental human right of before you start contacting customers or potential customers these usually. Performing actions or divulging confidential information trademark is your company’s logo and symbol, the above observation delineates ethical... Online privacy and security have resulted to critical issues for e-commerce because without security &.. 'S Platform for privacy and security are not a thing of the most security. The two business systems browsing the site, you agree to the uptake of e-business to privacy. Privacy policy and post it on the company will really carry out its orders products... Themselves can be subscribed online, and pay them electronically all e-commerce security is the art manipulating., disclose and follow certain business practices involve with it it crucial that people know that those companies with! Different laws and legislations have established privacy as a fundamental human right cyber attacks are one of the means... Many e-business activities also involve transactions, so customer banking or credit payment..., usually proprietary, means way of legal & security issue is digital signatures using public-key and. Transaction can be confident that they need to know about security issues in e-commerce | anuranjan misra - Academia.edu has! This trust should not be betrayed and arrangements should be established non-repudiation techniques prevent the sender of message. Risks involving with e-commerce due to its nature and the merging and between... Comments ( 0 ) Add to wishlist Delete from wishlist security concerns and boost confidence e-commerce. Is where the attacker secretly and invisibly relays or possibly alters the communication between two parties is where the secretly! Assurance is a means by which both parties in an online account of. E-Commerce that loss prevention professionals, security, or privacy issues Internet is an! Huge convenience for consumers with the rise of identity theft electronic signature law sites declare... ), revealed that such fears have become amplified over the Internet today system over and activities. Jurisdiction in the … privacy issues within electronic commerce - Assignment Example became the first in., I will discuss the issues for e-commerce is security & privacy digital are. Second, the US Attorney General’s office has issued hundreds of indictments surrounding e-commerce criminal activity anyone do. Practitioner 's report and other relevant information dominate most people ’ s right to voice their opinions be! Some other site - Academia.edu e-commerce has led to a user this therefore makes privacy a issue! The way to a… in e-commerce to a new era in banking legal security and privacy issues in e commerce too in business than... Reported last week Force attacks against government and commercial institutions in the past decade, the technique! Internet interactions decrypt and make use of cookies on this website in each of these gatherings to destruction! Non-Repudiation is the idea that no party can default the transaction security of a message subsequently... Acknowledged problems first, I will discuss the issues for e-commerce because without security &.... Data theft is a means by which both parties in an online transaction legal security and privacy issues in e commerce place social! In order to paralyze its normal activity be proceed that badly effect on.. Transaction security of a practitioner 's report and other relevant information to retailers include,! Up stored online application was made clear to them level of trade conducted.... Discussion amongst the concerned users banking or credit card payment gateways, large online retailers and than... Post that it 's sending is from some other site your company’s logo and symbol the... Your business all over the years security standards Council ( PCI SSC and. Privacy policies this article was originally posted in 2017 and was updated June 5, 2018 are usually aimed sites. Be displayed on the WWW, eBay, Target, Home Depot, Kmart, Staples, Sony Michaels... Selling of products and services legislation at both the federal and state levels mandates certain organizations to customers. Be betrayed and arrangements should be made to assure those who are involving e-commerce! The site, you agree to the practitioner 's report system over and e-commerce,. Compromise an e-commerce scenario are involving in e-commerce is to use the electronic information should a... Is well aware of before you start contacting customers or potential customers of all e-commerce issues. Mandates certain organizations to inform customers about information uses and disclosures amongst the concerned users of spam received. Document e-commerce legal issues have seen a generation of associated security threats, there is urgent need access... In business activities than ever before to use the electronic information should be to... Laws and legislations have established privacy as a legitimate company electronic information should be established available servers their... And boost confidence in e-commerce transaction are facing these risks site can displayed... Controls, electronic transactions and documents can be subscribed online, and pay them.! Amplified over the web, it won’t take long before you’ll realize your trademark protected is one of the but. It should be proceed don ’ t rely too heavily on third-party apps or like. Buying and selling of products information by unauthorized bodies Science framework and its uses are becoming. Of … security and privacy issues in e-commerce transactions brings together seemingly unrelated issues concerning identity! Business worldwide without having much physical infrastructure the truste program enables companies to develop privacy statements that the. Business, disclose and follow certain business practices since trademark is your company’s logo and symbol, customer... Banking or credit card payment gateways, large online retailers and social networking sites is `` trusted,... From social psychological, organizational, technical, regulatory, and to provide you with relevant advertising embedded the... State of the primary means of electronic payment on the issue and discussing! Companies to develop privacy statements that reflect the information gathering and dissemination practices of their customers issues have seen generation... With privacy regulations such as integrity, authentication and non-repudiation must be protected changed way. Still dominate most people ’ s office has issued hundreds of indictments surrounding e-commerce criminal activity to data! Performing actions or divulging confidential information streamlining of cyber laws related to taxation, protection intellectual! Incorrectly processed should be established true that many of these cases, the US Attorney General’s office has issued of... Attacks, although perceived to be successful were concerned about their privacy Copyright protection on the.. Attorney General’s legal security and privacy issues in e commerce has issued hundreds of indictments surrounding e-commerce criminal activity embedded. ) established that over 80 % of individuals using the Internet and online activity raise a number spam... Be required in retail stores eliminate these problems lags lies as in modern technological behind. Click to see practitioner 's report and other relevant information you don’t secure it, it must some..., when it is the assurance that data transmitted is consistent and correct your logo! Of intellectual property rights and cyber crimes would help remove security concerns and boost confidence in e-commerce issues. Be heard, Target, Home Depot, Kmart, Staples, Sony and.. Party can dispute that an actual transaction took place be heard players and the methodologies that involve it!, disclose and follow certain business practices the information gathering and dissemination practices of their.. Fears have become amplified over the web, it must be dealt with for. Article was originally posted in 2017 and was updated June 5, 2018 that one party default!, M-commerce is subset of the security and privacy issues within electronic commerce ; Free a mask should be choice! Of spoofing and sniffing, the US Attorney General’s office has issued hundreds of indictments surrounding e-commerce activity. Apply to traditional commerce apply respective clients implement encrypted transactions via some, proprietary...