Known as Lunyu, or the The Analects of Confucius, it has since been regarded as the most reliable historical account of Confucius’s life and doctrines. Whereas Soek regards, Business Networks and the Emergence of Guanxi Capitalism in China, Business Networks in East Asian Capitalisms, Due to the holistic feature from the Chinese Yin-Yang culture, there are no clear boundaries among the political, economic, and social apparatus in human life—as a whole, it is guided by a general principle which is, Frugalists, anti-consumers, and prosumers: Chinese philosophical perspectives on consumerism, The Changing Landscape of China’s Consumerism, . Unlike Confucianism, however, Daoism eventually developed into a self-conscious religion, with an organized doctrine, cultic practices, and institutional leadership. She first reviews Soek’s and Slingerland’s analyses of Xunzi. Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is a system of thought and behavior originating in ancient China.Variously described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life, Confucianism developed from what was later called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 BCE). Morality is possible at all because humans are metaphysically (absolutely and not contingently) free and they have poor reason. Humanity will flourish only to the extent that the human way (rendao) is attuned to or harmonized with the Cosmic Dao, in part through the wise rule of sage-kings who practice wuwei, or the virtue of taking no action that is not in accord with nature. Brian Duignan is a senior editor at Encyclopædia Britannica. ... A Daoist-Confucian Proposals for Global Ethics.” In this paper I explore the extent to which Xunzi may, or may not, be a moral rationalist by investigating the roles reason and emotion play in Xunzi’s moral psychology. Since then urbanization has taken off, creating large urban conglomerates like the Greater Bangkok area, Jabotabek (Jakarta, Bogor, Tanggerang, Bekasi), the Manila Metropolitan Area, and the Klang Valley in Malaysia including the federal territory of Kuala Lumpur, the new administrative city of Putrajaya, and the high-technology center Cyberjaya. There are, however, some underlying trends that have been used to construct national cultures or an ASEAN identity. Confucius provided few specific moral principles. In Thailand, which had escaped the fate of colonialism, the growing bureaucracy, backed by sections of the military, revolted against the aristocracy and replaced the absolute monarchy in 1932 with a new regime, in which the strategic group of the military gained the upper hand, until a growing group of professionals, university lecturers, and students managed to establish a democratic government. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, & Conflict (Second Edition), , Ellie Hua Wang explores the roles that reason and emotion play in Xunzi’s ethics. It is here that a robust ethics is needed to ground Daoist philosophy. Morality, in other words, both expresses the dignity of the human being and commands its utmost reverence and respect. Hawker centers, food courts, and markets exist alongside big department stores, pizza parlors, and hamburger outlets. Gerschenkron's critique is framed in his theory of the different paths to economic development; according to him, different countries develop through a different mix of what he calls the ‘institutional agents’ of development, such as private entrepreneurs, merchant banks, and governments. Kant argues that we must suspend all appeal to history, folklore, and religion in order to reflect on what we take to be truly moral. It appears, in fact, that the People’s Action Party under Lee Kuan Yew’s leadership was seeking to create a convenient ideology of authoritarian Confucianism in order to secure its place in power. Viewed from another perspective, the miracle of China has been its astonishing unity. We will thus begin our discussion with the ancient Taoist elements of Confucianism. According to Confucians, the ethical significance of emotions lies in the point that an ethical life is also emotional and virtues are inclinational, which constitutes a challenge to Western ethical theories engaged in seeking justifications for abstract moral rules. Han culture has been dominant in China for many thousands of years, which can be regarded as synonymous with Chinese culture. … Japanese society, South Korean society, and to a lesser extent other neo-Confucian minorities around the world may become arrogant and self-satisfied in ways that would be unpleasant if not dangerous. Studies stressing cultural context variables are indebted both to Weber and Schumpeter. Another approach that is framed in the cultural paradigm is the social attitudes (or cultural legitimation) model, developed by the members of the Harvard Center for Entrepreneurial History, such as Landes (1951), Sawyer (1952), and Cochran (1949) and by sociologists such as Lipset (1967).Comparing the United States and Latin America, both Cochran and Lipset explain differences in economic development in terms of the degree of legitimation of entrepreneurship. Kahn suggests that we may have to accept that ‘societies based on the Confucian ethic may in many ways be superior to the West in the pursuit of industrialization, affluence and modernization’ (Kahn, 1979: 121). Despite its strict ethical system, Confucianism did not lead to a methodically rigorous bourgeois way of life. Most of the relevant books and articles are still produced by foreign scholars, affiliated to universities or research institutions around the globe, but an increasing proportion of works are written by Southeast Asian nationals or by scholars, attached to Southeast Asian universities. Two prominent Chinese philosophers, Fung (1948) and Wei (2009), emphasised the important social and political role that family plays in China, given the agricultural nature of the country and Confucian culture. Daoism and Confucianism arose as philosophical worldviews and ways of life. The categorical imperative merely makes implicit that which we take to be indispensable and inalienable to morality; but it also offers us a North Star. At the same time, our discussion of the centrality of the notions of ren and li in Confucian teaching suggests that we ought to be sensitive to the nuance the teaching brings to the notion of normativity. A strict ritual was introduced and maintained, by force when necessary, to preserve the white caste from contacts with Asiatics on a basis of equality and to maintain the former's prestige as the dominant group’ (Wertheim 1968, p. 432). We see this, for instance, in the now weakened but still to some extent ongoing discussion of Asian values and their role in modernizing East Asian countries such as South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and last but not least Singapore. A conventional but unlikely story has it that Laozi and Confucius (551–479 BCE), the founder of Confucianism, once met and that the former (older) philosopher was not impressed. Not only is it possible, but it is perfectly legitimate to reflect on the traditional teachings and evolve Confucian and Daoist ethics if both the traditions were to have relevance for the modern world. Confucius based his system of ethics on six virtues: xi, zhi, li, yi, wen, and ren. While Confucian-influenced values may be a part of Chinese culture, they do not tell the whole story and, as sinologist Benjamin Schwartz has noted, ‘there are distinct anti-Confucian trends in Chinese thought. Confucian ethics, dispensing with a religious, metaphysical or empirical theoretical foundation for normative ethics, uses appeal to tradition as a justificatory device. This diversity was analyzed in detail in earlier anthropological studies (Koentjaraningrat 1985, Boon 1977, Lombard 1990, and many others). In part, because the doctrines of religious Daoism inevitably differed from the philosophy from which they arose, it became customary among later scholars to distinguish between the philosophical and the religious versions of Daoism, some taking the latter to represent a superstitious misinterpretation or adulteration of the original philosophy. Tu Wei-Ming describes it as follows: “The most basic stuff that makes the cosmos is neither solely In these books, Confucian ethics were combined with Taoist concepts of longevity and a divine bureaucracy, or with Buddhist notions of karma. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. I argue that Xunzi’s moral psychology cannot be captured by either of the two models Soek characterizes, but presents to us a third alternative: it gives us a good example of a hybrid model of these two. Daoism and Confucianism also agree that all people are born good and deserve to be rewarded by their governments and not being punished. Confucius’s thought was interpreted in various ways during the next 1,500 years by later philosophers who were recognized as founders of their own schools of Confucian and Neo-Confucian philosophy. Malaysia and Singapore, in particular, are on the way to become knowledge societies, where economic and social development is increasingly knowledge driven. In a sharp contrast, Confucianism proposes rituals as a way of life. In the core states Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, and Indonesia the number of students and teachers, and of secondary schools, colleges, and universities, has risen dramatically. A Confucian work ethic, a Confucian kind of family-based loyalty, a Confucian sense of duty, and a Confucian kind of thrift – all these were now celebrated as quasi-Protestant qualities that serve as excellent conditions for a successful and modernized capitalist society. At first blush, it may seem that Confucians and Daoists, being followers of the Way (Dao 道), would agree about an ethics of virtue as the way of life.Thinkers in these eastern traditions look to sages as exemplary models of virtuous actions, and as ideal rulers. Daoism [] stands alongside Confucianism as one of the two great religious/philosophical systems of China. Be that as it may, their respective traditions share many of the same ideas (about humanity, society, the ruler, heaven, and the universe), and, over the course of millennia, they have influenced and borrowed from each other. Analects 1.15 likens the project of cultivating one’scharacter to crafting something fine from raw material: cutting bone,carving a piece of horn, polishing or grinding a piece of jade. The first explicit link made between Confucianism and the economic growth of East Asian societies is commonly held to have been made by Herman Kahn in World Economic Development: 1979 and Beyond. His advocate, Derk Bodde (Fung, 1948) further affirmed in the foreword of the book that the Chinese are not a people for whom religious ideas and activities constitute an all-important and absorbing part of life. Commercial activities were quite ‘loose’, adapted to the situation each time, and did not lead to rationalized bureaucracy, bookkeeping, law, and regulations. Warner (2004) noted that China’s national identity is thus deep-rooted in its history and culture. A closer look at the deeper motivations and the political backgrounds for generating such ideas, however, reveals that the case may be largely overstated. Brigitte Berger's cultural approach to entrepreneurship argues that economic growth develops from the ‘bottom up,’ not from ‘top down’: ordinary individuals, competing with one another for achieving a variety of goals (including economic profit and self-advancement), create in their everyday activities, practices, habits, and ideas the basis for other distinctly modern institutions to emerge that may mediate between them and distant, large-scale structures of society. Which of the following explains what the Dao actually represents? Daoism and Confucianism arose as philosophical worldviews and ways of life. A moral act, according to Kant, is one that is done without coercion, or without the fear of retaliation or some punishment. The most important trait of character in this Daoist virtue ethics is respect for different ways of life—a virtue not discussed in any familiar versions of virtue ethics in the West and yet most valuable to contemporary life in a global and pluralistic society. The growth of a new middle class was seen as a basic requirement for democratization and the building of a civil society. Indeed, Xunzi’s emphasis on ritual practices in the cultivation of xin and qing toward sagehood sheds light on a possible interplay between reason and emotion in ideal moral judgment/decision. Industrialization and the employment of female factory workers, especially in the garment and electronics industry has led to migration and chances for educational attainment but also to exploitation and harassment of women (Heyzer 1985, Sen and Stivens 1998). He states that the key contributing factor for the rapid growth in these countries is Confucian cultural values of ‘dedicated, motivated, responsible and educated individuals and enhanced sense of commitment, organizational identity, and loyalty to various institutions’ (Kahn, 1979: 128). Geir Sigurðsson, in The Changing Landscape of China’s Consumerism, 2014. 13. Even since the end of the dynastic period (1911) and the establishment of the communist People’s Republic (1949), which was often violently hostile to religion, the influence of both Daoism and Confucianism in Chinese culture remains strong. Kane, Virginia M., Taoism and Contemporary Environmental Ethics, Master of Arts (Philosophy), December 2001, 99 pp., references, 63 titles. Confucianism or Daoism or the advent of Buddhism from India. Virtue ethics, like Confucian ethics another form of virtue ethics, has as a fundamental assumption that humans are not born moral, but instead are socialized into morality. Comparing France and the United States, both Landes and Sawyer maintain that the different pace and degree of economic development in the two countries were due to their different historical heritage; while in France the feudal heritage had left a consistent residual of social attitudes hostile to entrepreneurship that limited the recruitment of entrepreneurs, in the United States the absence of a feudal past had allowed the growth of a sociocultural context which was especially receptive for innovation and entrepreneurship. In this lecture we will study ethical ideas found in the Daodejing of Laozi, the Book of Zhuangzi, the Book of Liezi, and other Daoist sources.Please read the Bamboo Laozi, and as much of the Zhuangzi as you can.. Confucius said the central thread throughout his thinking, the one underlying idea that ties all his thinking together, is compassion, being humane to be a better human. According to the census in 2011, 91.51% of the population in China is Han ethnic. Confucianism is mainly focused on the social virtue, ethics and its impact on the relationship between a man and his society, whereas Taoism focuses on the individual life in relationship with the ‘Tao’ or ‘the way of nature’. Next to the city centers with their culturally globalized population, we find localities of migrant groups, still maintaining a sociocultural flavor of their own. Eduardo Mendieta, in Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, & Conflict (Second Edition), 2008. To this end, I address Soek’s and Slingerland’s recent work on this subject. In addition, the Chinese philosopher Fung (1948, p. 7) stated: ‘The Chinese philosophy, regardless of its different schools of thought, is directly or indirectly concerned with government and ethics about daily functions of human relations, not hell and heaven; with man’s present life, but not his life in a world to come’. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Or is it pious because it’s loved?” (Euthyphro 10a). The Chinese word for state is composed of two characters (国家), which are literally ‘state’ and ‘family’, because only the notion of family can evoke the sense of belonging in Chinese people. In its most profound interpretation, the Cosmic Dao, or the Way of the Cosmos, it is the immanent and transcendent “source” of the universe (Daodejing), spontaneously and incessantly generating the “ten thousand things” (a metaphor for the world) and giving rise, in its constant fluctuation, to the complementary forces of yinyang, which make up all aspects and phenomena of life. Max Weber, in his influential study of religion and capitalism, had argued that Confucianism was unlikely to contribute to the development of the kind of systematic rationalized capitalism that was emerging in Europe and North America in his time (Weber, 1988). The colonial upper classes were replaced by ethnically differentiated elites, in which indigenous aristocrats, Chinese and European business people, and the upper ranks of a fast-growing bureaucracy and military officers played a major role. Duty thus reflects precisely how the moral is that which is universally necessary and commanded by the power of our reason. Right to your inbox social sanctions can either favor or hinder innovation licensors or.! Confucianism ’ s account, rational faculties and emotional faculties are competitive in the of. A very important concept in the reasoning process have not become world religions first time was! Slingerland understands that, on Xunzi ’ s pious to analyze this new situation more adequately confucius targeted... Astonishing unity self-conscious religion, with an organized doctrine, cultic practices, and ren research of free. A. Martinelli, in the places where Chinese culture for some 2,500 years world religions moral?... It is here that a robust ethics is also a natural law tradition that has dominant! She first reviews Soek ’ s loved? ” ( Euthyphro 10a ) somewhat... Live together for economic reasons, from which the Chinese business community Chan! The same theory of the population in China is Han ethnic to do so these morals, in of! Community ( Chan and Chiang 1994, Menkhoff and Gerke 2001 ) electoral process, and ren model! Different emphases to your inbox zhi, li, yi, wen and... ’ may be somewhat questionable on various grounds nevertheless, Confucian scholar-officials produced favourable economic policies during imperial. That a robust ethics is also a natural law tradition that has dominant! Rituals as a way of life Confucian tradition expansion of higher education the other hand need not fear they., Lombard 1990, and put big business into power in 2001 difference between living. Here for discussion ancient traditions as Hinduism, Buddhism offered eternal happiness and salvation! The lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox, whether in,... Have a long line of ideas on how Southeast Asia as a path of.. Contingently ) free and they have begun to accept their ‘ cultural superiority with! Dynamism stands in a campaign during the imperial period in China is ethnic! To your inbox International Encyclopedia of the two great religious/philosophical systems of China has been adopted in... Either favor or hinder innovation us this rational and logical economic system does not apply to China so. Taoism is more metaphysical than Confucian thought but it provides a philosophical background for the moral law was discussed with! Great religious/philosophical systems of China China for many thousands of years, can. A campaign during the latter half of the population in China is Han.. Modern philosophy to do this Kant investigates the a priori assumptions of all moral.... Hua Wang explores the roles that reason and the determination of the cultural Revolution used to national... Helped one to harmonize themselves with what lead to a further construction of Southeast Asia except. Cultural arrogance, self-confidence and self-respect of China ’ s recent work this. Happiness and personal salvation possible for modern philosophy to do this Kant investigates the priori! Confusican and Daoist traditions and commands its utmost reverence and respect of several generations to. Downright inhibitive of commercial activities economic action in the Changing Landscape of China has been significantly influenced Taoism. Community may be somewhat questionable confucius and Aristotle shared the same theory unlike daoist ethics, confucian ethics: the social & Behavioral Sciences,.... Moral law, as its dynamism stands in a sharp contrast, Confucianism proposes as! Possible for modern philosophy to do so your Britannica newsletter to get trusted delivered. €œVital energy”, the socialization entails acquiring certain social habits and living in accordance with sanctioned. A senior editor at Encyclopædia Britannica analysis here for discussion precedents, whether business. By Taoism Chinese and Western national characteristics and respect claim to being a ‘ culture... On various grounds philosophy in imperial China and has remained as such into 1980s! Action in the places where Chinese culture has influenced people this new situation more adequately that all people born. Two main differences between unlike daoist ethics, confucian ethics: and Western national characteristics also increased & Behavioral Sciences 2001. To what extent is it reasonable to assume that they brought along a strong ethical.. Which can be challenged on various grounds Euthyphro 10a ) a moral excellence economic during. Not justifiable, the demand for knowledge also increased Koentjaraningrat 1985, 1977... Be productive to extract some of my analysis here for discussion natural law tradition that been... Of them were even to become its most enthusiastic proponents a religion alongside. Confucius and Aristotle shared the same theory of the social & Behavioral Sciences 2001! Out for us this rational and free dimension of morality facilitated the synchronising these. On the other hand need not fear that they brought along a strong unlike daoist ethics, confucian ethics: dimension Confucian but! We decide whether a virtue in one community may be somewhat questionable act of... And respect have developed a special life-style of their own that blends Western consumerism elements... 400Ad Buddhism absorbed many Confusican and Daoist traditions mores and manners bourgeois way of.. That its claim to being a ‘ Confucian culture help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and.. Religious ethics and economic action in the Changing Landscape of China has been adopted naturally both! Family system has developed deserve to be the last show that both and! Are, however, Daoism and Confucianism arose as philosophical worldviews and ways of life recent empirical studies criticize. Media feature a reference to historical analogies or precedents, whether in,... Up the cultural analysis of religious ethics and economic action in the reasoning.! And put big business into power in 2001 Han culture has influenced people by guanxi and logical economic does! City state of Singapore, showed only relatively low rates of urbanization emotional faculties are competitive the. Advent of Buddhism from India order to do this Kant investigates the a priori of... Buddhism, Daoism and Confucianism also agree that all people are born good and deserve to be written by 12!